THE United States Department of Agriculture (USDA provided a fresh take on the global grain outlook with the release of the June World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report last week. Surprisingly, the news was relatively subdued and was quickly overshadowed by ongoing global weather issues, particularly in the US.
Corn has a firm grip on the global grain market’s steering wheel at the moment, and most traders and analysts were expecting quite bullish news from the USDA. While that was the case on the whole, there were still some confusing numbers, particularly the cautious approach taken to the Brazilian production issues.
Further cut for Brazil corn
This season’s corn production woes in Brazil are well documented, with some local analysts posting production numbers sub 90 million tonnes (Mt). Nevertheless, the USDA decided to kick the can a little further down the road it seems, reducing current season production by just 3.5Mt month on month to 98.5Mt.
In the US, corn exports for the 2020-21 season were raised 1.9Mt to a record 72.39Mt on the back of the huge spike in demand from China. However, the China import number was unchanged at 26Mt, which appears conservative based on the unexecuted export sales still on the books and the low rate of cancellations.
The US ethanol grind was also raised by 1.9Mt with recent corn crushing, ethanol production and ethanol stocks data suggesting demand is approaching levels seen prior to the coronavirus pandemic. The net effect of these changes was a lower-than-expected US carry-out number of 28.1Mt, down 3.8Mt from the May figure.
In the end, global corn production for the 2020-21 season was trimmed by 3.4Mt from last month to 1125Mt, reflecting the Brazil crop downgrade. Worldwide exports were pegged at 187Mt, fractionally higher than in the May report, and global ending stocks came in around expectations at 280.6MT, 2.9Mt lower than May.
Global corn production in 2021-22 is forecast to increase by 5.7 per cent year on year to a tad under 1190Mt.
Global corn consumption is projected to be 2.7pc above current-season levels at just over 1181Mt, resulting in an increase in global ending stocks of almost 9Mt to 289.4Mt. Exports are expected to increase by nearly 10.5Mt to a record 197.5Mt.
Reduced US exports surprise
Interesting among the new-crop numbers was the 10Mt decrease in US exports to 62Mt against a current-season Brazilian crop that is getting smaller by the day, and is overquoted by as much as 8Mt in the WASDE report. Surely the US will have to fill the resultant supply gap when new-crop production comes online. Eventually, the numbers will tell the story, but only once the USDA decides to pick up the can and admit the production hole in Brazil.
On the surface, it may seem surprising that new-crop US production remained unchanged when 30pc of the corn belt is suffering from varying degrees of drought. However, there will be a USDA stocks and acreage update at the end of June that is widely expected to reveal a seeded area much higher than what was reported in March.
Informa released updated survey results last week, suggesting that the area planted to corn could be as high as 39.2 million hectares (Mha). That is 2.3Mha more than the USDA’s March planting intentions number, and will help compensate for production currently being lost due to moisture deficit conditions in several key growing regions.
EU wheat rebounds
The USDA loosened the global wheat balance sheet a little in last week’s report, with world production forecast to rise 2.4 per cent, or 18.6Mt year on year to a record 794.4Mt in the 2021-22 crop year. The highlights are a rebound in European Union production compared to the 2020 harvest, and another record crop In Russia.
Month on month, the USDA revised the EU wheat crop 3.5Mt higher to 137.5Mt, the Ukraine crop 500,000t higher to 29.5Mt, the US crop 700,000t higher to 51.7Mt, and the Russian crop 1Mt higher to 86Mt. The higher US production and no decrease for Canadian output was a surprise, considering the extreme drought conditions in the Northern Plains and north on to the Canadian Prairies.
Similarly, the spring wheat regions of Russia have been suffering under severe moisture stress. However, the winter-wheat regions, which account for almost 70 per cent of Russian wheat production, have enjoyed ideal growing conditions this year, apart for some winterkill in Central Russia. Leading Black Sea consultancy SovEcon raised its Russian crop ideas by 1.5Mt to 82.4Mt last week, citing excellent winter-wheat growing conditions this season.
On the demand side of the wheat equation, the USDA raised global consumption for the 2021-22 marketing year by 2.4Mt from May to 791.1Mt. This represents an annual increase of 1.2pc, or 9.6Mt.
Global trade is also on the rise, with exports revised 800,000t higher than the May forecast, and 4.9Mt higher than the 2020-21 number, to a record 203.2Mt.
Record new-crop soybeans seen
The soybean story held very few surprises. Global production in the current season was increased by 1.1Mt to 364.1Mt. Brazil was the responsible party, with its crop 1Mt higher than the May number at a record 137Mt. Brazil carry-out was the beneficiary, up 1Mt to 23Mt, although China has been snapping up as much of the Brazilian crop as it can get its hands on, making an increase in ending stocks less likely with every new sale.
In the new-crop slot, global production, consumption and trade numbers were unchanged compared to the May report. However, the USDA is forecasting an annual increase in global production of almost 6pc, or 21.5Mtcompared, to the 2020-21 season. That would put world output at a record 385.5Mt, underpinned by 7Mt increases in both Brazil and the US and a 5Mt increase in Argentina.
With the June WASDE behind us, all eyes will be firmly focussed on Northern Hemisphere weather in the lead-up to the June 30 Grain Stocks and Acreage Reports. These reports mark a crucial juncture in this year’s proceedings, particularly for corn. The market has already factored in a much higher corn area. With dryness building across the US corn belt, the magnitude of the increase is becoming even more crucial to the direction of global grain markets.